Using Residential History and Groundwater Modeling to Examine Drinking Water Exposure and Breast Cancer

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dc.contributor.author Gallagher, Lisa G. en_US
dc.contributor.author Webster, Thomas F. en_US
dc.contributor.author Aschengrau, Ann en_US
dc.contributor.author Vieira, Verónica M. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2012-01-09T14:34:18Z
dc.date.available 2012-01-09T14:34:18Z
dc.date.issued 2010-06 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Gallagher, Lisa G., Thomas F. Webster, Ann Aschengrau, Verónica M. Vieira. "Using Residential History and Groundwater Modeling to Examine Drinking Water Exposure and Breast Cancer" Environmental Health Perspectives 118(6): 749-755. (2010) en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1552-9924 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2144/2781
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND. Spatial analyses of case-control data have suggested a possible link between breast cancer and groundwater plumes in upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts. OBJECTIVE. We integrated residential histories, public water distribution systems, and groundwater modeling within geographic information systems (GIS) to examine the association between exposure to drinking water that has been contaminated by wastewater effluent and breast cancer. METHODS. Exposure was assessed from 1947 to 1993 for 638 breast cancer cases who were diagnosed from 1983 to 1993 and 842 controls; we took into account residential mobility and drinking water source. To estimate the historical impact of effluent on drinking water wells, we modified a modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater model (MODFLOW) from the U.S. Geological Survey. The analyses included latency and exposure duration. RESULTS. Wastewater effluent impacted the drinking water wells of study participants as early as 1966. For > 0-5 years of exposure (versus no exposure), associations were generally null. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for > 10 years of exposure were slightly increased, assuming latency periods of 0 or 10 years [AOR = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-1.9 and AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.2, respectively]. Statistically significant associations were estimated for ever-exposed versus never-exposed women when a 20-year latency period was assumed (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4). A sensitivity analysis that classified exposures assuming lower well-pumping rates showed similar results. CONCLUSION. We investigated the hypothesis generated by earlier spatial analyses that exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater effluent may be associated with breast cancer. Using a detailed exposure assessment, we found an association with breast cancer that increased with longer latency and greater exposure duration. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Cancer Institute (5R03CA119703-02); National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (5P42 ES007381) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences en_US
dc.rights This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original DOI. en_US
dc.subject Breast cancer en_US
dc.subject GIS en_US
dc.subject Groundwater en_US
dc.subject Historical exposure en_US
dc.subject Mobility en_US
dc.subject Space-time en_US
dc.title Using Residential History and Groundwater Modeling to Examine Drinking Water Exposure and Breast Cancer en_US
dc.type article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1289/ehp.0901547 en_US
dc.identifier.pubmedid 20164002 en_US
dc.identifier.pmcid 2898849 en_US

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