Adaptive runtime techniques for power and resource management on multi-core systems
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Energy-related costs are among the major contributors to the total cost of ownership of data centers and high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. As a result, future data centers must be energy-efficient to meet the continuously increasing computational demand. Constraining the power consumption of the servers is a widely used approach for managing energy costs and complying with power delivery limitations. In tandem, virtualization has become a common practice, as virtualization reduces hardware and power requirements by enabling consolidation of multiple applications on to a smaller set of physical resources. However, administration and management of data center resources have become more complex due to the growing number of virtualized servers installed in data centers. Therefore, designing autonomous and adaptive energy efficiency approaches is crucial to achieve sustainable and cost-efficient operation in data centers. Many modern data centers running enterprise workloads successfully implement energy efficiency approaches today. However, the nature of multi-threaded applications, which are becoming more common in all computing domains, brings additional design and management challenges. Tackling these challenges requires a deeper understanding of the interactions between the applications and the underlying hardware nodes. Although cluster-level management techniques bring significant benefits, node-level techniques provide more visibility into application characteristics, which can then be used to further improve the overall energy efficiency of the data centers. This thesis proposes adaptive runtime power and resource management techniques on multi-core systems. It demonstrates that taking the multi-threaded workload characteristics into account during management significantly improves the energy efficiency of the server nodes, which are the basic building blocks of data centers. The key distinguishing features of this work are as follows: We implement the proposed runtime techniques on state-of-the-art commodity multi-core servers and show that their energy efficiency can be significantly improved by (1) taking multi-threaded application specific characteristics into account while making resource allocation decisions, (2) accurately tracking dynamically changing power constraints by using low-overhead application-aware runtime techniques, and (3) coordinating dynamic adaptive decisions at various layers of the computing stack, specifically at system and application levels. Our results show that efficient resource distribution under power constraints yields energy savings of up to 24% compared to existing approaches, along with the ability to meet power constraints 98% of the time for a diverse set of multi-threaded applications.