APPLICATION OF THE KHOKHLOV-ZABOLOTSKAYA-KUZNETSOV EQUATION TO MODELING HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND BEAMS
Cheung, Theresa Yeeting
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High-intensity focused ultrasound is a form of therapeutic ultrasound which uses high amplitude acoustic waves to heat and ablate tissue. HIFU employs acoustic amplitudes that are high enough that nonlinear propagation effects are important in the evolution of the sound field. A common model for HIFU beams is the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation which accounts for nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption. The KZK equation models diffraction using the parabolic or paraxial approximation. Many HIFU sources have an aperture diameter similar to the focal length and the paraxial approximation may not be appropriate. Here, results obtained using the “Texas code,” a time-domain numerical solution to the KZK equation, were used to assess when the KZK equation can be employed. In a linear water case comparison with the O’Neil solution, the KZK equation accurately predicts the pressure field in the focal region. The KZK equation was also compared to simulations of the exact fluid dynamics equations (no paraxial approximation). The exact equations were solved using the Fourier-Continuation (FC) method to approximate derivatives in the equations. Results have been obtained for a focused HIFU source in tissue. For a low focusing gain transducer (focal length 50λ and radius 10λ), the KZK and FC models showed excellent agreement, however, as the source radius was increased to 30λ, discrepancies started to appear. Modeling was extended to the case of tissue with the appropriate power law using a relaxation model. The relaxation model resulted in a higher peak pressure and a shift in the location of the peak pressure, highlighting the importance of employing the correct attenuation model. Simulations from the code that were compared to experimental data in water showed good agreement through the focal plane.