Immunotherapeutic options for the treatment of neuroblastoma: an analysis of natural killer cell and gamma delta T cell based immunotherapy
Bixby, Catherine Elizabeth
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Neuroblastoma is an aggressive solid tumor that develops from immature cells of the nervous system and is almost exclusively diagnosed in infants and young children. Over the past decade a multitude of immune based therapies have been explored as therapeutic candidates for patients with neuroblastoma. The anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody, 3F8, and more recently, natural kill (NK) cell based therapies have been accepted as hopeful therapeutic options for patients with Neuroblastoma. These options however have many drawbacks including dose limiting pain, the development of tolerance, reliance on MHC mismatch and possible reliance on the invariant NK (iNK) cells population. Gamma Delta T cells, a subpopulation of T cells composed of a T cell receptor (TCR) with a gamma and a delta chain instead of an alpha and a beta; chain, have been shown to recruit a more robust immune response then both 3F8 and NK cells through their activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and non-reliance on MHC mismatch. Gamma Delta T cells are also able to recruit NK cells as well as other cytotoxic lymphocytes. For these reasons, it is believed that Gamma Delta T cell based treatment alone or in combination with an anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody may have a greater efficacy than either NK cells or an anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody alone. The intent of this thesis is to explore and evaluate the current state of Gamma Delta T cell based immunotherapy against the backdrop of NK cell based immunotherapy for neuroblastoma.