The effect of vitamin D2, vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 in mushroom powder supplements on broad gene expression in human white blood cells
Feigert, Caroline Elizabeth
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Sufficient vitamin D is important for overall health. However, cutaneous production of vitamin D is limited by season and little vitamin D naturally occurs in food. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation is necessary. Vitamin D is available in pharmacies as vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, and can also be obtained by irradiating mushrooms to produce vitamin D2. Types of vitamin D supplementation were tested to compare their ability to increase vitamin D status and their effect on broad gene expression in human white blood cells. 2000 IU of vitamin D2, vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 in irradiated mushroom powder were given to subjects daily for twelve weeks. A placebo mushroom powder group was included in the second half of the study. To determine the effect of different supplementation on vitamin D status, whole blood was obtained weekly and serum was assayed for 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. Change in total 25(OH)D was determined from baseline to twelve weeks; 25(OH)D levels in the placebo mushroom powder group did not change significantly at 1.8 ± 1.8 ng/ml (9.6 ± 9.6%), the mushroom D2 group increased by 10.9 ± 10.2 ng/ml (53.2 ± 49.8%), the supplemental D2 group increased by 11.8 ± 7.4 ng/ml (60.2 ± 37.8%) and the supplemental D3 group increased by 21.7 ± 8.9 ng/ml (114.2 ± 46.8%). As expected, the total active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) showed no change in all groups because of its tight regulation. To determine the potential influence of vitamin D supplementation on differential gene expression in the immune system, white blood cells were isolated from whole blood samples taken before and after supplementation. RNA was extracted, and microarray assays were performed. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was completed to determine strongly influenced pathways. However, due to the numerous variables between halves of the study, gene expression data was treated as separate studies. Even so, pathways involving RNA activation and degradation were significant between mushroom powder and mushroom D2 supplementation in both halves of the study, indicating the influence of compounds in mushrooms on RNA metabolism pathways. Supplemental vitamin D2 affected gene expression, though only two pathways showed significant change. Supplemental vitamin D3 was found to influence pathways involved in replication, transcription, and translation in both halves of the study. In conclusion, mushrooms powder, mushroom vitamin D2, supplemental vitamin D2, and supplemental vitamin D3 all influence differential gene expression in human white blood cells.
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