M^2RC: Multiplicative-increase/additive-decrease Multipath Routing Control for Wireless Sensor Networks
MetadataShow full item record
Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) face two main challenges: first, the challenging environments in which WSNs are deployed negatively affect the quality of the routing process. Therefore, routing protocols for WSNs should recognize and react to node failures and packet losses. Second, sensor nodes are battery-powered, which makes power a scarce resource. Routing protocols should optimize power consumption to prolong the lifetime of the WSN. In this paper, we present a new adaptive routing protocol for WSNs, we call it M^2RC. M^2RC has two phases: mesh establishment phase and data forwarding phase. In the first phase, M^2RC establishes the routing state to enable multipath data forwarding. In the second phase, M^2RC forwards data packets from the source to the sink. Targeting hop-by-hop reliability, an M^2RC forwarding node waits for an acknowledgement (ACK) that its packets were correctly received at the next neighbor. Based on this feedback, an M^2RC node applies multiplicative-increase/additive-decrease (MIAD) to control the number of neighbors targeted by its packet broadcast. We simulated M^2RC in the ns-2 simulator and compared it to GRAB, Max-power, and Min-power routing schemes. Our simulations show that M^2RC achieves the highest throughput with at least 10-30% less consumed power per delivered report in scenarios where a certain number of nodes unexpectedly fail.