Biosynthetic pathways of pro-resolving lipid mediators In vascular cells
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INTRODUCTION: Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) such as resolvin-D1 (RvD1) act to resolve vascular inflammation and may guard against the progression of restenosis following cardiovascular interventions. Stimulating synthesis of these mediators directly in vascular cells may increase their local availability, and thus, protect against restenotic injury. However, the ability of endothelial (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to produce SPMs from their polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via lipoxygenase (LO) enzymatic transformation remains unknown. We sought to determine whether vascular cells produce SPMs from DHA and, if they do, how inflammation and mechanical injury of the vasculature alter biosynthesis. METHODS: Primary cultures of human saphenous vein endothelial and smooth muscle cells were treated with DHA in cell culture media (+ 10% serum) for 4h-24h. Freshly dissected rabbit aorta was incubated intact or following gentle endothelial denudation in cell culture media (+10% serum) with or without DHA for 48h. SPM levels in media were quantified by LC-MS/MS and ELISA and lipoxygenase expression and localization were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. RESULTS: EC and SMC receiving media without DHA did not synthesize SPMs within the detection limits of the assay, whereas DHA treatment produced 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA, Mar1, RvD5, RvD2, and a dose and time-dependent increase in RvD1 production in EC (10.1 ±1.0 pg for 1000nM at 24h) and SMC (7.4 ± 0.2 pg for 1000nM at 24h). Intact rabbit aorta incubated in DHA+ media produced 0.24 ± 0.05 pg RvD1/mg tissue whereas aorta incubated in DHA− media produced 0.13 ± 0.007 pg RvD1/mg tissue. Moreover, EC-denuded aortas produced less RvD1/mg tissue than intact aortas. 5-LO was expressed in both cell types, however DHA induced 5-LO expression in EC (1.3 fold -DHA) but not in SMC. DHA promoted a nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of 5-LO in both EC and SMC. Finally, TNF-α stimulated an increase in RvD1 production in EC. CONCLUSIONS: Human vascular cells and rabbit vascular tissue can biosynthesize SPMs de novo from their precursor DHA, signifying a new source of SPMs in the vasculature.