Universal Quantum Circuits
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We define and construct efficient depth universal and almost size universal quantum circuits. Such circuits can be viewed as general purpose simulators for central classes of quantum circuits and can be used to capture the computational power of the circuit class being simulated. For depth we construct universal circuits whose depth is the same order as the circuits being simulated. For size, there is a log factor blow-up in the universal circuits constructed here. We prove that this construction is nearly optimal. Our results apply to a number of well-studied quantum circuit classes.