Indexing Methods for Efficient Multiclass Recognition
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Citation (published version)Stefan, Alexandra. "Indexing Methods For Efficient Multiclass Recognition (MA Thesis)", Technical Report BUCS-TR-2008-018, Computer Science Department, Boston University, August 15, 2008. [Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2144/1711]
Many real world image analysis problems, such as face recognition and hand pose estimation, involve recognizing a large number of classes of objects or shapes. Large margin methods, such as AdaBoost and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), often provide competitive accuracy rates, but at the cost of evaluating a large number of binary classifiers, thus making it difficult to apply such methods when thousands or millions of classes need to be recognized. This thesis proposes a filter-and-refine framework, whereby, given a test pattern, a small number of candidate classes can be identified efficiently at the filter step, and computationally expensive large margin classifiers are used to evaluate these candidates at the refine step. Two different filtering methods are proposed, ClassMap and OVA-VS (One-vs.-All classification using Vector Search). ClassMap is an embedding-based method, works for both boosted classifiers and SVMs, and tends to map the patterns and their associated classes close to each other in a vector space. OVA-VS maps OVA classifiers and test patterns to vectors based on the weights and outputs of weak classifiers of the boosting scheme. At runtime, finding the strongest-responding OVA classifier becomes a classical vector search problem, where well-known methods can be used to gain efficiency. In our experiments, the proposed methods achieve significant speed-ups, in some cases up to two orders of magnitude, compared to exhaustive evaluation of all OVA classifiers. This was achieved in hand pose recognition and face recognition systems where the number of classes ranges from 535 to 48,600.