Effect of radiofrequency glow discharge on proliferation and osteogenic behavior of normal human osteoblasts
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BACKGROUND: Implants have been widely used in the medical field. It was adopted in dentistry, offering patients replacement of missing teeth. Researchers have been investigating techniques to improve implants’ survival. Among these techniques is plasma glow discharge. Radio-frequency Glow discharge (RGD) is a surface treatment and sterilization technique with the aim to improve the titanium oxide layer for better osseointegration. Previous studies have evaluated its effect on non-human cell lines with promising results. Up to date, there is no report on how RGD surface treatment of titanium affects normal human osteoblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human bone fragments were obtained from dental extraction sites and were processed to culture normal human osteoblasts. Cells were seeded on three different surfaces at a concentration of 1x105 cells per plate; Titanium discs with and without Argon RGD (ARGD), and tissue culture plates (TCP). Dishes were allocated to 3 timelines: 16 hours, 7 days and 14 days. The outcome measures were cell attachment, cell number, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels. RESULTS: Data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. Mean cell proliferation percentage for the ARGD group at 7 days was the highest (167.966%). The difference in means among the three groups at 7 days was statistically significant (p=0.0022). At 14 days, the highest mean of cell proliferation percentage was highest for the ARGD group. When testing all pairs, at 7 days the differences in means were statistically significant between (ARGD vs. no ARGD, and ARGD vs. TCP) (p=0.0018, and p=0.0286), respectively. At 14 days, the differences in means were statistically significant between (ARGD vs. TCP, p= 0.0003) and (no ARGD vs. TCP, p=0.0007). There was a significant difference in means for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin at 7 and 14 days between TCP and ARGD, and TCP and no ARGD groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study on normal human osteoblasts indicated that ARGD significantly enhanced cell proliferation. There was no significant difference in osteogenic behavior between with and without ARGD treatment on titanium surfaces within the time studied. A prolonged phase of cell proliferation was observed in ARGD treated groups.