Physical and mechanical properties of experimental dentinogenic pulp capping material
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Bioactive Inorganic Element (BIE) is a bioactive glass that has been developed and studied for bone regeneration, and dentinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To test the physical and mechanical properties (setting time, pH level, solubility, and compressive strength) of two groups of BIE-containing materials: 20% BIE (20% BIE, 60% Portland cement, and 20% bismuth oxide) and 40% BIE (40% BIE, 40% Portland cement, and 20% bismuth oxide), and compare them with Dycal® and Experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (EMTA) as the control groups, with and without calcium chloride at three different concentrations (5%, 10%, and 15%). METHODS: Ten samples in each group were tested for setting time, pH level, compressive strength, and solubility. Setting time was determined following the ISO specification 6876 using digital dial indicator. The pH level of the storage solutions of each specimen in deionized water was measured after 2 hours, and 1, 7, 21, and 28 days. The compressive strength was measured following the ISO specification 9917, and solubility was measured as a weight loss after storage in deionized water. The compressive strength and solubility were measured at 1, 7, 21, and 28 days. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. RESULTS: Dycal® showed the least setting time material, which was comparable to the 40% BIE + 10%, and 15% CaCl2 (p > 0.05). EMTA showed the longest setting time (p < 0.0001). For the pH level, at 2 hours the lowest level was for the 40% BIE + 15% CaCl2 group, and the highest was for EMTA group. During all time intervals, the lowest compressive strength was for the Dycal®, and the highest was for the 40% BIE (p < 0.0001). During all time intervals, the Dycal® was the most soluble material (p <0.0001), and the solubility levels of EMTA, 20% BIE, and 40 % BIE were comparable (p > 0.05). The pH level, compressive strength, and solubility of all tested material increased with time and decreased with CaCl2 addition. CONCLUSION: The 40% BIE with 10% CaCl2 showed promising physical and mechanical properties that could compete the Dycal® and EMTA when used in pulp capping.