Diseases of the prostate gland, prostate specific antigen and periodontal disease
Al-Turki, Ghassan Abdallah
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OBJECTIVE: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different diseases of the prostate gland (Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH), Prostatitis, and Prostate Cancer) as well as levels of Prostate specific Antigen (PSA) with periodontal disease. METHODS: A subset of data from the VA Dental Longitudinal Study was used for this study. The total sample size was 352 subjects with at least one PSA reading. Diagnoses of diseases of the prostate gland (BPH, Prostatitis, and Prostate Cancer) and PSA were used as the main outcome variables. Measurements of periodontal disease [average clinical attachment loss (CAL), average probing pocket depth (APD), and number of teeth with severe bone loss (NTBL)] were used as the main predictors. Statistical analysis included descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate testing. For the final multivariate analysis, Generalize Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for potential confounders was used. RESULTS: The study subjects were predominantly Caucasian males. At baseline the mean age was 71 years, and the mean PSA level was 2.5 ng/ml. The proportion of subjects with prostate diseases at baseline was 79.6% for BPH, 7.4% for prostatitis, and 8.8% for prostate cancer. Using GEE models and after controlling for potential confounders we found an association between CAL and BPH, as for every millimeter increase in CAL the odds of having BPH increased by 41%. We have also found that those with BPH and CAL above 2.7mm have higher PSA levels than those with either condition alone. We have not found any relationship between BPH and APD or NTBL. We have also not found any relationship between PSA, Prostatitis, and prostate cancer with any of the measurements of periodontal disease used in this study. CONCLUSION: This study showed an association between an increase in CAL and BPH. As well as showing that those with BPH and CAL above 2.7mm have higher PSA levels than those with either condition alone. These findings support that periodontal disease could affect the health of the prostate gland in an aging population, as well as the importance of oral health as an important and integral part of general health and well-being.