Authenticated Index Structures for Aggregation Queries in Outsourced Databases
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In an outsourced database system the data owner publishes information through a number of remote, untrusted servers with the goal of enabling clients to access and query the data more efficiently. As clients cannot trust servers, query authentication is an essential component in any outsourced database system. Clients should be given the capability to verify that the answers provided by the servers are correct with respect to the actual data published by the owner. While existing work provides authentication techniques for selection and projection queries, there is a lack of techniques for authenticating aggregation queries. This article introduces the first known authenticated index structures for aggregation queries. First, we design an index that features good performance characteristics for static environments, where few or no updates occur to the data. Then, we extend these ideas and propose more involved structures for the dynamic case, where the database owner is allowed to update the data arbitrarily. Our structures feature excellent average case performance for authenticating queries with multiple aggregate attributes and multiple selection predicates. We also implement working prototypes of the proposed techniques and experimentally validate the correctness of our ideas.