A Laminar Cortical Model for 3D Perception of Slanted and Curved Surfaces and of 2D Images: Developement, attention, and Bistability
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A model of laminar visual cortical dynamics proposes how 3D boundary and surface representations of slated and curved 3D objects and 2D images arise. The 3D boundary representations emerge from interactions between non-classical horizontal receptive field interactions with intracorticcal and intercortical feedback circuits. Such non-classical interactions contextually disambiguate classical receptive field responses to ambiguous visual cues using cells that are sensitive to angles and disparity gradients with cortical areas V1 and V2. These cells are all variants of bipole grouping cells. Model simulations show how horizontal connections can develop selectively to angles, how slanted surfaces can activate 3D boundary representations that are sensitive to angles and disparity gradients, how 3D filling-in occurs across slanted surfaces, how a 2D Necker cube image can be represented in 3D, and how bistable Necker cuber percepts occur. The model also explains data about slant aftereffects and 3D neon color spreading. It shows how habituative transmitters that help to control developement also help to trigger bistable 3D percepts and slant aftereffects, and how attention can influence which of these percepts is perceived by propogating along some object boundaries.