Neural Network and Bioinformatic Methods for Predicting HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor Resistance
Carpenter, Gail A.
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This article presents a new method for predicting viral resistance to seven protease inhibitors from the HIV-1 genotype, and for identifying the positions in the protease gene at which the specific nature of the mutation affects resistance. The neural network Analog ARTMAP predicts protease inhibitor resistance from viral genotypes. A feature selection method detects genetic positions that contribute to resistance both alone and through interactions with other positions. This method has identified positions 35, 37, 62, and 77, where traditional feature selection methods have not detected a contribution to resistance. At several positions in the protease gene, mutations confer differing degress of resistance, depending on the specific amino acid to which the sequence has mutated. To find these positions, an Amino Acid Space is introduced to represent genes in a vector space that captures the functional similarity between amino acid pairs. Feature selection identifies several new positions, including 36, 37, and 43, with amino acid-specific contributions to resistance. Analog ARTMAP networks applied to inputs that represent specific amino acids at these positions perform better than networks that use only mutation locations.