Large-Scale Neural Systems for Vision and Cognition
Carpenter, Gail A.
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— Consideration of how people respond to the question What is this? has suggested new problem frontiers for pattern recognition and information fusion, as well as neural systems that embody the cognitive transformation of declarative information into relational knowledge. In contrast to traditional classification methods, which aim to find the single correct label for each exemplar (This is a car), the new approach discovers rules that embody coherent relationships among labels which would otherwise appear contradictory to a learning system (This is a car, that is a vehicle, over there is a sedan). This talk will describe how an individual who experiences exemplars in real time, with each exemplar trained on at most one category label, can autonomously discover a hierarchy of cognitive rules, thereby converting local information into global knowledge. Computational examples are based on the observation that sensors working at different times, locations, and spatial scales, and experts with different goals, languages, and situations, may produce apparently inconsistent image labels, which are reconciled by implicit underlying relationships that the network’s learning process discovers. The ARTMAP information fusion system can, moreover, integrate multiple separate knowledge hierarchies, by fusing independent domains into a unified structure. In the process, the system discovers cross-domain rules, inferring multilevel relationships among groups of output classes, without any supervised labeling of these relationships. In order to self-organize its expert system, the ARTMAP information fusion network features distributed code representations which exploit the model’s intrinsic capacity for one-to-many learning (This is a car and a vehicle and a sedan) as well as many-to-one learning (Each of those vehicles is a car). Fusion system software, testbed datasets, and articles are available from http://cns.bu.edu/techlab.