The VITEWRITE Model of Handwriting Production
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This article describes the VITEWRITE model for generating handwriting movements. The model consists of a sequential controller, or motor program, that interacts with a trajectory generator to move a hand with redundant degrees of freedom. The neural trajectory generator is the Vector Integration to Endpoint (VITE) model for synchronous variable-speed control of multijoint movements. VITE properties enable a simple control strategy to generate complex handwritten script if the hand model contains redundant degrees of freedom. The controller launches transient directional commands to independent hand synergies at times when the hand begins to move, or when a velocity peak in the outflow command to a given synergy occurs. The VITE model translates these temporally disjoint synergy commands into smooth curvilinear trajectories among temporally overlapping synergetic movements. Each synergy exhibits a unimodal velocity profile during any stroke, generates letters that are invariant under speed and size rescaling, and enables effortless connection of letter shapes into words. Speed and size rescaling are achieved by scalar GO and GRO signals that express computationally simple volitional commands. Psychophysical data such as the isochrony principle, asymmetric velocity profiles, and the two-thirds power law relating movement curvature and velocity arise as emergent properties of model interactions.