Cortical Dynamics of Visual Motion Perception: Short-Range and Long-Range Apparent Motion
Rudd, Michael E.
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This article describes further evidence for a new neural network theory of biological motion perception. The theory clarifies why parallel streams Vl --> V2, Vl --> MT, and Vl --> V2 --> MT exist for static form and motion form processing among the areas Vl, V2, and MT of visual cortex. The theory suggests that the static form system (Static BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to direction-ofcontrast and insensitive to direction-of-motion, whereas the motion form system (Motion BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to directionof-contrast but sensitive to direction-of-motion. The theory is used to explain classical and recent data about short-range and long-range apparent motion percepts that have not yet been explained by alternative models. These data include beta motion; split motion; gamma motion and reverse-contrast gamma motion; delta motion; visual inertia; the transition from group motion to element motion in response to a Ternus display as the interstimulus interval (ISI) decreases; group motion in response to a reverse-contrast Ternus display even at short ISIs; speed-up of motion velocity as interflash distance increases or flash duration decreases; dependence of the transition from element motion to group motion on stimulus duration and size; various classical dependencies between flash duration, spatial separation, ISI, and motion threshold known as Korte's Laws; dependence of motion strength on stimulus orientation and spatial frequency; short-range and long-range form-color interactions; and binocular interactions of flashes to different eyes.