The Construction of Arbitrary Stable Dynamics in Non-Linear Neural Networks
Cohen, Michael A.
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In this paper, two methods for constructing systems of ordinary differential equations realizing any fixed finite set of equilibria in any fixed finite dimension are introduced; no spurious equilibria are possible for either method. By using the first method, one can construct a system with the fewest number of equilibria, given a fixed set of attractors. Using a strict Lyapunov function for each of these differential equations, a large class of systems with the same set of equilibria is constructed. A method of fitting these nonlinear systems to trajectories is proposed. In addition, a general method which will produce an arbitrary number of periodic orbits of shapes of arbitrary complexity is also discussed. A more general second method is given to construct a differential equation which converges to a fixed given finite set of equilibria. This technique is much more general in that it allows this set of equilibria to have any of a large class of indices which are consistent with the Morse Inequalities. It is clear that this class is not universal, because there is a large class of additional vector fields with convergent dynamics which cannot be constructed by the above method. The easiest way to see this is to enumerate the set of Morse indices which can be obtained by the above method and compare this class with the class of Morse indices of arbitrary differential equations with convergent dynamics. The former set of indices are a proper subclass of the latter, therefore, the above construction cannot be universal. In general, it is a difficult open problem to construct a specific example of a differential equation with a given fixed set of equilibria, permissible Morse indices, and permissible connections between stable and unstable manifolds. A strict Lyapunov function is given for this second case as well. This strict Lyapunov function as above enables construction of a large class of examples consistent with these more complicated dynamics and indices. The determination of all the basins of attraction in the general case for these systems is also difficult and open.