Neural Dynamics of Motion Perception: Direction Fields, Apertures, and Resonant Grouping
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A neural network model of global motion segmentation by visual cortex is described. Called the Motion Boundary Contour System (BCS), the model clarifies how ambiguous local movements on a complex moving shape are actively reorganized into a coherent global motion signal. Unlike many previous researchers, we analyse how a coherent motion signal is imparted to all regions of a moving figure, not only to regions at which unambiguous motion signals exist. The model hereby suggests a solution to the global aperture problem. The Motion BCS describes how preprocessing of motion signals by a Motion Oriented Contrast Filter (MOC Filter) is joined to long-range cooperative grouping mechanisms in a Motion Cooperative-Competitive Loop (MOCC Loop) to control phenomena such as motion capture. The Motion BCS is computed in parallel with the Static BCS of Grossberg and Mingolla (1985a, 1985b, 1987). Homologous properties of the Motion BCS and the Static BCS, specialized to process movement directions and static orientations, respectively, support a unified explanation of many data about static form perception and motion form perception that have heretofore been unexplained or treated separately. Predictions about microscopic computational differences of the parallel cortical streams V1 --> MT and V1 --> V2 --> MT are made, notably the magnocellular thick stripe and parvocellular interstripe streams. It is shown how the Motion BCS can compute motion directions that may be synthesized from multiple orientations with opposite directions-of-contrast. Interactions of model simple cells, complex cells, hypercomplex cells, and bipole cells are described, with special emphasis given to new functional roles in direction disambiguation for endstopping at multiple processing stages and to the dynamic interplay of spatially short-range and long-range interactions.