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dc.contributor.authorShinn-Cunningham, Barbaraen_US
dc.contributor.authorSantarelli, Scotten_US
dc.contributor.authorKopco, Norberten_US
dc.date.accessioned2011-11-14T19:00:15Z
dc.date.available2011-11-14T19:00:15Z
dc.date.issued1999-10
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/2243
dc.description.abstractTo a first-order approximation, binaural localization cues are ambiguous: a number of source locations give rise to nearly the same interaural differences. For sources more than a meter from the listener, binaural localization cues are approximately equal for any source on a cone centered on the interaural axis (i.e., the well-known "cones of confusion"). The current paper analyzes simple geometric approximations of a listener's head to gain insight into localization performance for sources near the listener. In particular, if the head is treated as a rigid, perfect sphere, interaural intensity differences (IIDs) can be broken down into two main components. One component is constant along the cone of confusion (and thus co varies with the interaural time difference, or ITD). The other component is roughly constant for a sphere centered on the interaural axis and depends only on the relative pathlengths from the source to the two ears. This second factor is only large enough to be perceptible when sources are within one or two meters of the listener. These results are not dramatically different if one assumes that the ears are separated by 160 degrees along the surface of the sphere (rather than diametrically opposite one another). Thus, for sources within a meter of the listener, binaural information should allow listeners to locate sources within a volume around a circle centered on the interaural axis, on a "doughnut of confusion." The volume of the doughnut of confusion increases dramatically with angle between source and the interaural axis, degenerating to the entire median plane in the limit.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAir Force Office of Scientific Research (F49620-98-1-0108)en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherBoston University Center for Adaptive Systems and Department of Cognitive and Neural Systemsen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBU CAS/CNS Technical Reports;CAS/CNS-TR-1999-026
dc.rightsCopyright 1999 Boston University. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that: 1. The copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage; 2. the report title, author, document number, and release date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of BOSTON UNIVERSITY TRUSTEES. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and / or special permission.en_US
dc.titleBinaural Cues for Distance and Direction of Nearby Sound Sourcesen_US
dc.typeTechnical Reporten_US
dc.rights.holderBoston University Trusteesen_US


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