Neural Dynamics of Binocular Brightness Perception
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How docs the visual cortex combine information from both eyes to generate perceptual representations of object surfaces? Important clues about this process may be derived from data about the perceived brightnesses of surface regions under binocular viewing conditions, including data about binocular brightness summation in response to ganzfelds, the U-shaped data of Fechner's Paradox that violates binocular brightness summation, and the effects of different combinations of monocular and binocular contours and surface luminance differences on threshold sensitivity to monocular flashes of light. How to reconcile these apparently contradictory data properties has been a severe challenge to previous models, and none has explained them aiL The present article quantitatively simulates them all by further developing the FACADE vision modeL Key model processes discount the illuminant and compute image contrasts in each monocular channel using shunting on-center off-surround networks; binocularly fuse these discounted monocular signals using shunting on-center off-surround networks with nonlinear excitatory and inhibitory signals; and usc these binocularly fused activities to trigger filling-in of a binocular surface representation that represents perceived surface brightness. Previous models that have suggested explanations of subsets of these data are discussed.