The effect of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation on bone
Van Vliet, Miranda
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Diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk, which leads to increased morbidity and eventual mortality with a substantial financial burden. Type 2 Diabetics also have increased fracture risk, despite having the same or higher BMD as non-diabetics with a low fracture risk. One hypothesis for this is increased modifications made to the extra-cellular matrix via non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) that can occur in a hyperglycemic environment, such as with diabetes. The accumulation of NEG products, known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can possibly lead to microdamage and eventual weakening of the bone itself. We developed a time-response model in order to induce a wide range of AGEs in a manner that would sustain the mineral integrity of the bone and could be applied to a variety of bone sample types. This was performed on 65 rat tibias, distributed amongst 8 groups (3,7,10, & 14 days) for both ribose and control. Secondly, the protocol was performed on human cortical beam samples cut from 10 donor tibias with 3,5 and 7 day time points for ribose and control groups. All samples were incubated in a 0.6 M ribose solution or 0.0 M ribose control solution. There was a 7, 4, and 5-fold increase in AGEs at the 7, 10, and 14 day time points respectively over controls in the rat tibia study. There was no significant variation in cortical porosity, however TTMD was significantly less dense in the 14-day ribose treated groups. There was a trend toward higher AGEs with time in the human cortical beam specimens, but no significant increase. The AGEs values in the human cortical beam specimens were much lower than expected based on previous trials and reports in the literature. We were able to establish a time-response model for AGE accumulation in bone. However, the effects of AGEs on bone material properties remains inconclusive.