Exploring accuracy and impact of concurrent and retrospective self-talk among golfers
Arnold, T. A.
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Citation (published version)A. Baltzell, T. A. Arnold, L. Hayden. 2016. "Exploring accuracy and impact of concurrent and retrospective self-talk among golfers." Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, v. 8, Issue 3, pp. 41 - 56.
The current study aimed to provide insight into the types and frequency of self-talk of skilled golfers (n = 6) by considering and comparing concurrent verbalization and retrospective reports. Each participant wore a microphone to record his thoughts while verbalizing them for the duration of nine holes of golf on three separate occasions. The researchers transcribed and coded this verbalized self-talk. Participants also completed a retrospective self-talk questionnaire at the conclusion of each round. Results suggest that participants’ concurrent verbalization and retrospective reports were inconsistent, specifically with regard to function (i.e., motivational versus instructional) and valence (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral), and that participants felt their concurrent verbalization more accurately reflected their experiences. The results support previous research that indicates that retrospective reports of self-talk may not provide accurate insight into what athletes actually say to themselves as they perform in their sports, while asserting that concurrent verbalization may be a more accurate representation of their self-talk experiences.
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