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dc.contributor.authorBaltzell, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorArnold, T. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHayden, L.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-31T13:30:43Z
dc.date.available2017-10-31T13:30:43Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationA. Baltzell, T. A. Arnold, L. Hayden. 2016. "Exploring accuracy and impact of concurrent and retrospective self-talk among golfers." Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, v. 8, Issue 3, pp. 41 - 56.
dc.identifier.issn1947-2900
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/24337
dc.description.abstractThe current study aimed to provide insight into the types and frequency of self-talk of skilled golfers (n = 6) by considering and comparing concurrent verbalization and retrospective reports. Each participant wore a microphone to record his thoughts while verbalizing them for the duration of nine holes of golf on three separate occasions. The researchers transcribed and coded this verbalized self-talk. Participants also completed a retrospective self-talk questionnaire at the conclusion of each round. Results suggest that participants’ concurrent verbalization and retrospective reports were inconsistent, specifically with regard to function (i.e., motivational versus instructional) and valence (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral), and that participants felt their concurrent verbalization more accurately reflected their experiences. The results support previous research that indicates that retrospective reports of self-talk may not provide accurate insight into what athletes actually say to themselves as they perform in their sports, while asserting that concurrent verbalization may be a more accurate representation of their self-talk experiences.en_US
dc.format.extentp. 41-56en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherSt. Thomas Universityen_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Multidisciplinary Research
dc.rightsCompilation Copyright © 2016 by St. Thomas University. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectSport psychologyen_US
dc.subjectPerformanceen_US
dc.subjectConcurrent verbalizationen_US
dc.subjectRetrospective reportsen_US
dc.subjectSelf-talken_US
dc.titleExploring accuracy and impact of concurrent and retrospective self-talk among golfersen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
pubs.elements-sourcemanual-entryen_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: Not knownen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, School of Educationen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0002-9738-5028 (Baltzell, A)


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