Chipping, failure load and fatigue resistance of anterior veneers manufactured with CAD/CAM technology
Almarzouki, Mai Zohair
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the marginal chipping of anterior veneers made with CAD/CAM by calculating the chipping factor, to evaluate the failure load of different veneering materials and thicknesses under static loading and cyclic loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ivorine central incisor was prepared to receive a traditional veneer. Using epoxy resin, 120 replication dies were made of the prepared tooth. Four ceramic materials were used; IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, VITA ENAMIC and Lava Ultimate. Veneers were milled using a Sirona InLab MCXL at three different thicknesses, 0.4mm, 0.7mm and 1.0mm, n=10 for each group. Veneers were inspected under the light microscope to calculate the chipping factor (CF). All veneers were cemented to their tooth replicas using Variolink Veneer resin cement. Five specimens/group were loaded under compression using an Instron universal testing machine at a rate of 0.5 mm/minute until fracture. Another five specimens were subjected to cyclic loading at 30% of the mean fracture load for 30,000 cycles at frequency rate of 1 Hz, and then were loaded under compression to fracture. Modes of failure were recorded after each test. RESULTS: IPS Empress CAD 0.4mm CF was higher than all other groups, and VITA ENAMIC and Lava Ultimate 1.0mm CF were the lowest. There was a significant difference in the failure load of the IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD groups under static loading but not in VITA EANMIC and Lava Ultimate groups. Cyclic fatigue had no significant effect on the failure load of different veneering materials and thicknesses. CONCLUSIONS: Chipping factor decreases as the material thickness increases and can be used as an indicator of material machinability. IPS e.max CAD at 1.0mm had the highest static failure load value when compared to other materials. Cyclic fatigue did not affect the failure load values within the groups tested.