Optimized Kava compound treatment reduced porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss
Alshammari, Abdulsalam Khulaif
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a modified Kavain-derived compound, Kava-241, on periodontal destruction in a periodontitis-induced murine model. METHODS: The study involved 49 mice divided into three groups: control, diseased, and treatment. Diseased mice were infected with P. gingivalis via oral gavage over a 15-day period to mimic periodontal infection. Treated mice received Kava-241 treatment after disease induction over the same period. Bone loss and inflammatory cell activity was assessed by a morphometric analysis of the left mouse maxillae and a histomorphometric analysis of TRAP and H&E stained tissue sections of the right mouse maxillae. RESULTS: Infected group showed significantly increased alveolar bone loss and inflammatory cells throughout the experimental period in comparison to the untreated control groups. The Infected mice that received Kava-241 showed a significant decrease in inflammatory cell activity in periodontal connective tissues as compared to mice that did not receive any treatment. In periodontal connective tissues, treated mice showed significant decreases of 61.9% and 41.6% of polymorphonucleocyte and monocyte cell counts, respectively, compared to untreated mice. Furthermore, the mice that received treatment post-infection showed a statistically significant decrease in alveolar bone loss. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated 72.7% and 37.0% reductions of epithelial down-growth and bone loss respectively. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a 46.7% reduction of bone loss in treated mice compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate modification of Kava could yield a more effective and safer therapeutic compound in the treatment of periodontal inflammation and bone loss.