Accelerated Postnatal Growth Increases Lipogenic Gene Expression and Adipocyte Size in Low–Birth Weight Mice
Leshan, Rebecca L.
Myers, Martin G.
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Citation (published version)Isganaitis, Elvira, Jose Jimenez-Chillaron, Melissa Woo, Alice Chow, Jennifer DeCoste, Martha Vokes, Manway Liu, Simon Kasif, Ann-Marie Zavacki, Rebecca L. Leshan, Martin G. Myers, Mary-Elizabeth Patti. "Accelerated Postnatal Growth Increases Lipogenic Gene Expression and Adipocyte Size in Low–Birth Weight Mice" Diabetes 58(5): 1192-1200. (2009)
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the hormonal milieu and adipose gene expression in response to catch-up growth (CUG), a growth pattern associated with obesity and diabetes risk, in a mouse model of low birth weight (LBW). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ICR mice were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12.5–18.5, reducing offspring birth weight by 25%. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum, permitting CUG in offspring, or food restricted, preventing CUG. Offspring were killed at age 3 weeks, and gonadal fat was removed for RNA extraction, array analysis, RT-PCR, and evaluation of cell size and number. Serum insulin, thyroxine (T4), corticosterone, and adipokines were measured. RESULTS: At age 3 weeks, LBW mice with CUG (designated U-C) had body weight comparable with controls (designated C-C); weight was reduced by 49% in LBW mice without CUG (designated U-U). Adiposity was altered by postnatal nutrition, with gonadal fat increased by 50% in U-C and decreased by 58% in U-U mice (P < 0.05 vs. C-C mice). Adipose expression of the lipogenic genes Fasn, AccI, Lpin1, and Srebf1 was significantly increased in U-C compared with both C-C and U-U mice (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial DNA copy number was reduced by >50% in U-C versus U-U mice (P = 0.014). Although cell numbers did not differ, mean adipocyte diameter was increased in U-C and reduced in U-U mice (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CUG results in increased adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression and adipocyte diameter but not increased cellularity, suggesting that catch-up fat is primarily associated with lipogenesis rather than adipogenesis in this murine model.