The effect of bur wear and physico-chemical environment on the accuracy, machinability and surface damage of CAD/CAM ceramics
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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cutting performance and accuracy of CAD/CAM diamond burs in different chemo-mechanical conditions when machining yttria-stabilized zirconia (YTZ), lithium-disilicate, feldspathic porcelain, and double network hybrid ceramic material. The study also examined bur wear mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1: 45 samples of each material were milled, and four criteria were tested: milling time; surface roughness; change in bur weight after machining, and total cement space. Experiment 2: Four different coolant liquids were used while machining 15 samples of lithium-disilicate, feldspathic porcelain, and double network hybrid ceramic material. The four criteria in Experiment 1, plus marginal adaptation, were measured. Burs and ceramic materials used were examined with SEM before and after machining. RESULTS: Experiment 1: All burs milled 15 crowns of each material successfully, with a general increase in milling time and decrease in weight. Four wear patterns were identified: grit cracks, micro-fractures, dislodgement, and matrix abrasion. Sequential milling time increased for all of the ceramic materials. Surface roughness (Ra) decreased in general for all materials used in the study except YTZ, which showed an increase in Ra by the end of the machining series. Experiment 2: Additives used in this study had no significant effect on IPS e.max CAD milling efficiency or Ra. Boric acid reduced Vita MarkII machining time significantly and Ra. CONCLUSIONS: The cutting rate of diamond burs differed when machining different ceramic materials. In sequential machining, every consecutive milling demonstrated lower cutting efficacy. The surface roughness of consecutive machined samples differed. Some cooling liquids affected the quality of the machined surface. The bur wear mechanism was the same when different ceramic materials were machined, and their microstructure affected their machinability.