The Goldfish as a Model for Studying Neuroestrogen Synthesis, Localization, and Action in the Brain and Visual System
Callard, G. V.
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Citation (published version)Callard, G V, A Kruger, M Betka. "The goldfish as a model for studying neuroestrogen synthesis, localization, and action in the brain and visual system." Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Suppl 7): 51-57. (1995)
Organizational and activational effects of estrogen (E) in the central nervous system (CNS) are exerted directly by circulating E and indirectly after aromatization of circulating androgen to E in the brain itself. Understanding an environmental chemical's ability to disrupt E-dependent neural processes, therefore, requires attention to both pathways. Because aromatase (Aro) is highly expressed in teleost brain, when compared to mammals and other vertebrates, fish are technically advantageous for localization and regulation studies and may also provide a model in which the functional consequences of brain-derived (neuro-)E synthesis are exaggerated. Recently, Aro was immunolocalized in cell bodies and fiber projections of second- and third-order neurons of the goldfish retina and in central visual processing areas. Authentic Aro enzyme activity was verified biochemically, suggesting a heretofore unrecognized role of sex steroids in the visual system. Initial studies show that in vivo treatment with aromatizable androgen or E increases calmodulin synthesis and calmodulin protein in retina and also affects retinal protein and DNA. Whether there are related changes in the processing of visual information that is essential for seasonal reproduction or in the generative and regenerative capacity of the goldfish visual system requires further investigation. IMAGES.