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dc.contributor.authorHofmann, Stefan G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMundy, Elizabeth A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCurtiss, Joshuaen_US
dc.coverage.spatialUnited Statesen_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-02-01T16:45:21Z
dc.date.available2018-02-01T16:45:21Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifierhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306326
dc.identifier.citationStefan G Hofmann, Elizabeth A Mundy, Joshua Curtiss. 2015. "Neuroenhancement of Exposure Therapy in Anxiety Disorders.." AIMS Neurosci, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 123 - 138.
dc.identifier.issn2373-7972
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/26590
dc.description.abstractAlthough exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers). Several of these agents have been studied to determine their efficacy at improving treatment outcome for patients with anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, catecholamines, oxytocin, modafinil, and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids as potential neuroenhancers. Of these agents, d-cycloserine shows the most promise as an effective neuroenhancer for extinction learning and exposure therapy. Yet, the optimal dosing and dose timing for drug administration remains uncertain. There is partial support for cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine and oxytocin for improving extinction learning and exposure therapy. There is less evidence to indicate that modafinil and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids are effective neuroenhancers. More research is needed to determine their long term efficacy and clinical utility of these agents.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipR34 MH086668 - NIMH NIH HHS; R01 AT007257 - NCCIH NIH HHS; R21 MH101567 - NIMH NIH HHS; R34 MH099311 - NIMH NIH HHS; R21 MH102646 - NIMH NIH HHS; K23 MH100259 - NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH099021 - NIMH NIH HHSen_US
dc.format.extent123 - 138en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.relation.ispartofAIMS Neuroscien_US
dc.rightsCopyright Info: 2015, Stefan G. Hofmann, et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0).
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
dc.subjectAnxiety disordersen_US
dc.subjectCognitive behavioral therapyen_US
dc.subjectCognitive enhanceren_US
dc.subjectD-cycloserineen_US
dc.subjectExposure therapyen_US
dc.subjectExtinctionen_US
dc.subjectNeuroenhanceren_US
dc.titleNeuroenhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disordersen_US
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.3934/Neuroscience.2015.3.123
pubs.elements-sourcepubmeden_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: No embargoen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciencesen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciences, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciencesen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0002-3548-9681 (Hofmann, Stefan G)


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Copyright Info: 2015, Stefan G. Hofmann, et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright Info: 2015, Stefan G. Hofmann, et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0).