The sources of self-efficacy: Educational research and implications for music
Hendricks, Karin S.
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CitationK Hendricks. 2016. "The sources of self-efficacy: Educational research and implications for music." Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp. 32 - 38.
Music teachers can empower students with control over their own music ability development by helping them foster positive self-efficacy beliefs. This article reviews general education and music research concerning Bandura’s theoretical four sources of self-efficacy (enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal/social persuasion, and physiological and affective states), in order to guide music teachers in determining effective methods and approaches to help students develop a sense of music self-efficacy and subsequent music achievement. A brief summary of each self-efficacy source category is provided, along with a discussion of the means whereby self-efficacy perceptions can be developed within both general education and music learning environments. Each of these four sections reviews research and simultaneously provides corresponding practical suggestions for educators.