Sensory feedback control in speech: Neural circuits and individual differences
Guenther, Frank H.
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Citation (published version)Frank H. Guenther. 2016. "Sensory feedback control in speech: Neural circuits and individual differences." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 139, Issue 4, pp. 2191 - 2191.
Speech production involves a combination of feedforward and sensory feedback-based control mechanisms. The latter have been characterized in experiments involving real-time perturbations during speech. Unexpected perturbations of auditory feedback result in corrective motor responses with a minimum latency of approximately 100 ms after perturbation onset. These responses have been shown for both pitch and formant frequency perturbations, and the responsible neural circuitry includes portions of the superior temporal gyrus and ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). Corrective responses to somatosensory perturbations (such as a downward force applied to the jaw) occur approximately 50 ms after perturbation onset and are mediated by ventral somatosensory cortex and vPMC. The degree to which an individual weights auditory versus somatosensory feedback varies substantially. Such differences rely in part on differences in sensory acuity, e.g., a speaker with relatively poor hearing is likely to rely more heavily on somatosensory feedback control mechanisms than auditory feedback control mechanisms. Additionally, reliance on feedback control may be modulated to compensate for impairments in the feedforward system for speech, e.g., adults who stutter show a reduced reliance on auditory feedback control compared to fluent speakers, perhaps because auditory feedback can have a deleterious effect on speech initiation in stuttering.