Statistical physics of cascading failures in complex networks
Panduranga, Nagendra Kumar
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Systems such as the power grid, world wide web (WWW), and internet are categorized as complex systems because of the presence of a large number of interacting elements. For example, the WWW is estimated to have a billion webpages and understanding the dynamics of such a large number of individual agents (whose individual interactions might not be fully known) is a challenging task. Complex network representations of these systems have proved to be of great utility. Statistical physics is the study of emergence of macroscopic properties of systems from the characteristics of the interactions between individual molecules. Hence, statistical physics of complex networks has been an effective approach to study these systems. In this dissertation, I have used statistical physics to study two distinct phenomena in complex systems: i) Cascading failures and ii) Shortest paths in complex networks. Understanding cascading failures is considered to be one of the “holy grails“ in the study of complex systems such as the power grid, transportation networks, and economic systems. Studying failures of these systems as percolation on complex networks has proved to be insightful. Previously, cascading failures have been studied extensively using two different models: k-core percolation and interdependent networks. The first part of this work combines the two models into a general model, solves it analytically, and validates the theoretical predictions through extensive computer simulations. The phase diagram of the percolation transition has been systematically studied as one varies the average local k-core threshold and the coupling between networks. The phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models which study each of the processes separately. For example, the phase diagram consists of first- and second-order transition regions separated by two tricritical lines that merge together and enclose a two-stage transition region. In the two-stage transition, the size of the giant component undergoes a first-order jump at a certain occupation probability followed by a continuous second-order transition at a smaller occupation probability. Furthermore, at certain fixed interdependencies, the percolation transition cycles from first-order to second-order to two-stage to first-order as the k-core threshold is increased. We setup the analytical equations describing the phase boundaries of the two-stage transition region and we derive the critical exponents for each type of transition. Understanding the shortest paths between individual elements in systems like communication networks and social media networks is important in the study of information cascades in these systems. Often, large heterogeneity can be present in the connections between nodes in these networks. Certain sets of nodes can be more highly connected among themselves than with the nodes from other sets. These sets of nodes are often referred to as ’communities’. The second part of this work studies the effect of the presence of communities on the distribution of shortest paths in a network using a modular Erdős-Rényi network model. In this model, the number of communities and the degree of modularity of the network can be tuned using the parameters of the model. We find that the model reaches a percolation threshold while tuning the degree of modularity of the network and the distribution of the shortest paths in the network can be used as an indicator of how the communities are connected.