Postural Changes in Blood Pressure Associated with Interactions between Candidate Genes for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Exposure to Particulate Matter
Mittleman, Murray A.
Litonjua, Augusto A.
Wright, Robert O.
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CitationWilker, Elissa, Murray A. Mittleman, Augusto A. Litonjua, Audrey Poon, Andrea Baccarelli, Helen Suh, Robert O. Wright, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz. "Postural Changes in Blood Pressure Associated with Interactions between Candidate Genes for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Exposure to Particulate Matter" Environmental Health Perspectives 117(6): 935-940. (2009)
BACKGROUND. Fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] has been associated with autonomic dysregulation. OBJECTIVE. We hypothesized that PM2.5 influences postural changes in systolic blood pressure (ΔSBP) and in diastolic blood pressure (ΔDBP) and that this effect is modified by genes thought to be related to chronic lung disease. METHODS. We measured blood pressure in participants every 3-5 years. ΔSBP and ΔDBP were calculated as sitting minus standing SBP and DBP. We averaged PM2.5 over 48 hr before study visits and analyzed 202 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 genes. To address multiple comparisons, data were stratified into a split sample. In the discovery cohort, the effects of SNP x PM2.5 interactions on ΔSBP and ΔDBP were analyzed using mixed models with subject-specific random intercepts. We defined positive outcomes as p < 0.1 for the interaction; we analyzed only these SNPs in the replicate cohort and confirmed them if p < 0.025 with the same sign. Confirmed associations were analyzed within the full cohort in models adjusted for anthropometric and lifestyle factors. RESULTS. Nine hundred forty-five participants were included in our analysis. One interaction with rs9568232 in PHD finger protein 11 (PHF11) was associated with greater ΔDBP. Interactions with rs1144393 in matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1) and rs16930692, rs7955200, and rs10771283 in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) were associated with significantly greater ΔSBP. Because SNPs associated with ΔSBP in our analysis are in genes along the renin-angiotensin pathway, we then examined medications affecting that pathway and observed significant interactions for angiotensin receptor blockers but not angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS. PM2.5 influences blood pressure and autonomic function. This effect is modified by genes and drugs that also act along this pathway.
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