Epidemiologic Approaches to Assessing Human Cancer Risk from Consuming Aquatic Food Resources from Chemically Contaminated Water
Longnecker, M P
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CitationOzonoff, D, M P Longnecker. "Epidemiologic Approaches to Assessing Human Cancer Risk from Consuming Aquatic Food Resources from Chemically Contaminated Water" Environmental Health Perspectives 90: 141-146.
Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming fish from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.