The Kirchhoff-Braess paradox and its implications for smart microgrids
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Citation (published version)John Baillieul, Bowen Zhang, Shuai Wang. 2015. "The Kirchhoff-Braess Paradox and Its Implications for Smart Microgrids." 2015 54TH IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), pp. 6556 - 6563 (8).
Well known in the theory of network flows, Braess paradox states that in a congested network, it may happen that adding a new path between destinations can increase the level of congestion. In transportation networks the phenomenon results from the decisions of network participants who selfishly seek to optimize their own performance metrics. In an electric power distribution network, an analogous increase in congestion can arise as a consequence Kirchhoff's laws. Even for the simplest linear network of resistors and voltage sources, the sudden appearance of congestion due to an additional conductive line is a nonlinear phenomenon that results in a discontinuous change in the network state. It is argued that the phenomenon can occur in almost any grid in which they are loops, and with the increasing penetration of small-scale distributed generation it suggests challenges ahead in the operation of microgrids.