Relationship of birth order and gender with academic standing and substance use among youth in Latin America
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Citation (published version)J. Delva. 2012. "Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America." The Journal of Individual Psychology, v. 68, issue 1, pp. 19 - 37.
Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.