Handling Linkage Disequilibrium in Linkage Analysis Using Dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms
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Citation (published version)Cho, Kelly, Qiong Yang, Josée Dupuis. "Handling linkage disequilibrium in linkage analysis using dense single-nucleotide polymorphisms" BMC Proceedings 1(Suppl 1):S161. (2007)
The presence of linkage disequilibrium violates the underlying assumption of linkage equilibrium in most traditional multipoint linkage approaches. Studies have shown that such violation leads to bias in qualitative trait linkage analysis when parental genotypes are unavailable. Appropriate handling of marker linkage disequilibrium can avoid such false positive evidence. Using the rheumatoid arthritis simulated data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 15, we examined and compared the following three approaches to handle linkage disequilibrium among dense markers in both qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses: a simple algorithm; SNPLINK, methods for marker selection; and MERLIN-LD, a method for modeling linkage disequilibrium by creating marker clusters. In analysis ignoring linkage disequilibrium between markers, we observed LOD score inflation only in the affected sib-pair linkage analysis without parental genotypes; no such inflation was present in the quantitative trait locus linkage analysis with severity as our phenotype with or without parental genotypes. Using methods to model or adjust for linkage disequilibrium, we found a substantial reduction of inflation of LOD score in affected sib-pair linkage analysis. Greater LOD score reduction was observed by decreasing the amount of tolerable linkage disequilibrium among markers selected or marker clusters using MERLIN-LD; the latter approach showed most reduction. SNPLINK performed better with selected markers based on the D' measure of linkage disequilibrium as opposed to the r2 measure and outperformed the simple algorithm. Our findings reiterate the necessity of properly handling dense markers in linkage analysis, especially when parental genotypes are unavailable.
RightsCopyright 2007 Cho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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