The effect of phosphate deficiency on BMP-2 treated C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells
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There are approximately 600,000 cases of delayed or aberrant fracture healing in people each year, with a small subset of these fractures experiencing disunion. Dietary phosphate deficiency has been shown to impair oxidative phosphorylation and decrease BMP-2 mediated chondrogenic differentiation during fracture healing. Prior studies using pre-committed chondro-progenitor ATDC5 cell line grown in phosphate deficient media showed that energy consumption was linked to protein production and collagen hydroxylation but inversely related to matrix mineralization. The goal of this study was to further define the relationship between energy consumption and BMP-2 mediated stem cell chondrogenic differentiation and further examine how dietary phosphate, and promotion of collagen hydroxylation via ascorbate availability effected these processes. C3H10T1/2 murine cells, a multi-potential cell line, were expanded in pre-differentiation growth medium (DMEM with 10% FBS and 1% Pen/Strep). Once cells reached 60% confluence (day 0), they were grown in differentiating media (α-MEM with 5% FBS and 1X insulin-transferrin-selenium) containing either 100% (1mM) or 25% (0.25mM) inorganic phosphate (Pi), ± 200ng/mL BMP-2(BMP), and ±0.2 mM L-ascorbic acid (AA). In total, there were 8 groups with varying combinations of these three substances. Intracellular lipid, total DNA, protein, and hydroxyproline (HP) content were examined. Chondrocyte gene expression (Col2a1, Acan, ColXa1) and adipocyte gene expression (Pparg, Plin1, Ucp1) were measured to check for cell lineage commitment and specific differentiation of the C3H10T1/2. All measurements were acquired at day 8. The +BMP differentiation media groups contained significantly less DNA content and more protein content than the –BMP differentiation media groups (both p<0.0001). There was also a significant interaction between phosphate and ascorbic acid treatment (p=0.0296), with 25% Pi +AA groups producing significantly more protein than 100% Pi +AA groups. Hydroxyproline production was not different in 100% Pi or 25% Pi conditions (p=0.2951). AA presence in culture media led to greater HP production than culture media lacking AA (p=0.0035) There was a trend of an interaction between phosphate content and AA availability (p=0.0744). 100% Pi ±AA groups produced significantly different amounts of HP while 25% Pi ±AA groups did not produce significantly different amount of HP. Col2a1, Acan, and ColXa1 expression were all increased in +BMP groups. Ascorbic acid treatment groups expressed significantly more Col2a1and Acan than –AA groups. 100% Pi media led to greater Acan expression over 25% Pi groups (p=0.0009), whereas 25% Pi media trended to lead to greater ColXa1 expression over 100% Pi groups (p=0.0734). Pparg and Plin1 expression were increased in the 25% Pi condition. There were no significant differences in expression of Ucp1. C3H10T1/2 cells were significantly affected by phosphate concentration, BMP-2 treatment, and ascorbic acid supplementation. Phosphate deficiency hindered maturation of early chondrocytes into proliferating chondrocytes while also promoting MSC differentiation into the adipocyte cell lineage. Hypertrophic chondrocyte expression was decreased in phosphate deficient media, which may coincide with increased protein production observed in low phosphate conditions. BMP-2 promoted chondrogenesis which resulted in increased protein production. Whereas, lack of ascorbic acid in cell culture media led to decreased hydroxyproline production.
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