Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study
Herbst, Abraham J.
Eaton, Jeffrey W.
Li, Zehang R.
Clark, Samuel J.
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Citation (published version)Reniers G, Blom S, Calvert C, Martin-Onraet A, Herbst AJ, Eaton JW, Bor J, Slaymaker E, Li ZR, Clark SJ, Bärnighausen T, Zaba B, Hosegood V. Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2017 Mar;4(3):e113-e121. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30225-9
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially decreases morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. In this study, we describe population-level trends in the adult life expectancy and trends in the residual burden of HIV mortality after the roll-out of a public sector ART programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of the populations with the most severe HIV epidemics in the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data come from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), an observational community cohort study in the uMkhanyakude district in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used non-parametric survival analysis methods to estimate gains in the population-wide life expectancy at age 15 years since the introduction of ART, and the shortfall of the population-wide adult life expectancy compared with that of the HIV-negative population (ie, the life expectancy defi cit). Life expectancy gains and defi cits were further disaggregated by age and cause of death with demographic decomposition methods. FINDINGS: Covering the calendar years 2001 through to 2014, we obtained information on 93 903 adults who jointly contribute 535 42 8 person-years of observation to the analyses and 9992 deaths. Since the roll-out of ART in 2004, adult life expectancy increased by 15·2 years for men (95% CI 12·4–17·8) and 17·2 years for women (14·5–20·2). Reductions in pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV-related mortality account for 79·7% of the total life expectancy gains in men (8·4 adult life-years), and 90·7% in women (12·8 adult life-years). For men, 9·5% is the result of a decline in external injuries. By 2014, the life expectancy defi cit had decreased to 1·2 years for men (–2·9 to 5·8) and to 5·3 years for women (2·6–7·8). In 2011–14, pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV were responsible for 84·9% of the life expectancy deficit in men and 80·8% in women. INTERPRETATION: The burden of HIV on adult mortality in this population is rapidly shrinking, but remains large for women, despite their better engagement with HIV-care services. Gains in adult life-years lived as well as the present life expectancy defi cit are almost exclusively due to differences in mortality attributed to HIV and pulmonary tuberculosis.
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