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dc.contributor.authorEwen, Magareten_US
dc.contributor.authorZweekhorst, Marjoleinen_US
dc.contributor.authorRegeer, Barbaraen_US
dc.contributor.authorLaing, Richarden_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-30T19:56:15Z
dc.date.available2018-08-30T19:56:15Z
dc.date.copyright2017
dc.date.issued2017-02
dc.identifier.citationEwen M, Zweekhorst M, Regeer B, Laing R (2017) Baseline assessment of WHO’s target for both availability and affordability of essential medicines to treat non-communicable diseases. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0171284. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171284
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/31152
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: WHO has set a voluntary target of 80% availability of affordable essential medicines, including generics, to treat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in the public and private sectors of countries by 2025. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from 30 surveys in low- and middle-income countries, conducted from 2008-2015 using the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) medicine availability and price survey methodology, to establish a baseline for this target. METHODS: Data for 49 medicines (lowest priced generics and originator brands) to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions were analysed to determine their availability in healthcare facilities and pharmacies, their affordability for those on low incomes (based on median patient prices of each medicine), and the percentage of medicines that were both available and affordable. Affordability was expressed as the number of days' wages of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker needed to purchase 30 days' supply using standard treatment regimens. Paying more than 1 days' wages was considered unaffordable. FINDINGS: In low-income countries, 15.2% and 18.9% of lowest-priced generics met WHO's target in the public and private sectors, respectively, and 2.6% and 5.2% of originator brands. In lower-middle income countries, 23.8% and 23.2% of lowest priced generics, and 0.8% and 1.4% of originator brands, met the target in the public and private sectors, respectively. In upper-middle income countries, the situation was better for generics but still suboptimal as 36.0% and 39.4% met the target in public and private sectors, respectively. For originator brands in upper-middle income countries, none reached the target in the public sector and 13.7% in the private sector. Across the therapeutic groups for lowest priced generics, CVD medicines in low-income countries (11.9%), and CNS medicines in lower-middle (10.2%) and upper-middle income countries (33.3%), were least available and affordable in the public sector. In the private sector for lowest priced generics, CNS medicines were least available and affordable in all three country income groups (11.4%, 5.8% and 29.3% in low-, lower-middle and upper-middle income countries respectively). INTERPRETATION: This data, which can act as a baseline for the WHO target, shows low availability and/or poor affordability is resulting in few essential NCD medicines meeting the target in low- and middle-income countries. In the era of Sustainable Development Goals, and as countries work to achieve Universal Health Coverage, increased commitments are needed by governments to improve the situation through the development of evidence-informed, nationally-contextualised interventions, with regular monitoring of NCD medicine availability, patient prices and affordability.en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPLoS Oneen_US
dc.rightsCopyright: © 2017 Ewen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectWorld Health Organizationen_US
dc.subjectMedicine affordabilityen_US
dc.subjectNon-communicable diseasesen_US
dc.subjectHealth Action Internationalen_US
dc.subjectMedicine availabilityen_US
dc.subjectMedicine pricesen_US
dc.subjectDrugsen_US
dc.subjectUniversal health coverageen_US
dc.titleBaseline assessment of WHO’s target for both availability and affordability of essential medicines to treat non-communicable diseases.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holderZweekhorst et al.en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0171284


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Copyright: © 2017 Ewen et al. This is an open
access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright: © 2017 Ewen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.