Efficacy of surgical and medical intervention for treatment of left-sided endocarditis
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BACKGROUND: Treatment of left-sided Infective Endocarditis (IE) is challenging due to the presence of both surgical and medical interventions. The choice typically depends on the patient’s surgical risk and severity of infection. Our aim is to compare outcomes of IE patients who undergo valve replacement surgery with patients who are treated with solely antibiotics. METHODS: Patients undergoing valve surgery at our institution from 1995 to 2014 (n=196) and patients who were treated medically for IE from 2001 to 2014 (n=120) were included in this study. In total, 316 patients were included and clinical data was retrospectively collected from chart review. Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Scores were calculated to assess for surgical risk and data for preoperative fever, angina, and abscess was collected to assess for severity of infection. The primary outcome of interest was mortality at 30 days and 1 year post-treatment and secondary outcomes included post-treatment development of septic shock, MI, embolic events, recurrence of infection, stroke, and renal dysfunction. Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the likelihood of mortality based on the patient’s pre-intervention comorbidities and characteristics. A Kaplan-Meier Analysis was also conducted to assess for survival at both 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: Pre-operative fever (68.88% surgical vs 52.50% medical, p=0.002), angina (13.78% surgical vs 2.50% medical, p<0.05), and presence of abscess (33.37% surgical vs 6.67% medical, p<0.05) were significantly higher in the surgical population. Mortality at both 30-days (7.65% surgical vs 29.17% medical, p<0.05) and 1 year (17.35% surgical vs 46.67% medical, p<0.05) was significantly higher in the medical cohort. Mortality in patients presenting with valvular abscess was significantly higher in the surgical population at 30 days (4.5% surgical vs 62.5% medical, p<0.05) and 1 year (15.15% surgical vs. 75.00% medical, p<0.05). Surgical risk was significantly higher in medical patients overall (p<0.05), but not significantly higher in the pathogen specific subgroups. By individual pathogen, medical mortality was significantly higher at both 30 days and 1 year in the MRSA (p=0.0004 and p=0.0002) and Staphylococcus population (p=0.001 and p=0.0005) but only significantly higher in the Streptococcus population at 1 year (p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Valve Replacement Surgery in patients with left-sided MRSA and non-MRSA Staphylococcus IE leads to significantly better mortality outcomes at 30 days and 1 year than medical management. Specifically, we suggest that patients with preoperative valvular abscess undergo valve replacement surgery, regardless of pathogen, and that patients with MRSA and non-MRSA Staphylococcus IE be strongly considered for surgical intervention.