Bone grafting and its effect on stablilty of the jaw on extraction patients: a systematic review
Megalaa, Alexmena R.
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Tooth extraction is necessary when there is advanced decay, significance trauma or injury to the oral cavity, misalignment associated with crowded teeth or even, poor eruption of third molars. Typically, during extraction procedures, bone grafting material is inserted to minimize bone loss. Bone grafting has become a standard procedure in dentistry and an essential component in modern medicine. The practice started nearly 350 years ago when a Dutch doctor in 1668 performed the first and successful bone grafting operation. Currently, research studies are ongoing to enhance the success and viability of dental reconstruction. This thesis examines the effect of varying dental graft techniques and methodology on the stability and long-term effect on the jawbone. These techniques include five primary bone grafting methods, onlay, inlay, ridge expansion, distracted osteogenesis and guided bone regeneration (GBR) have been approved to enhance the outcome of dental implants. The review has presented the documented limitations and viability of each method. In this paper, the alternatives to bone grafting have also been elaborated. Based on the findings depicted in this research, the following recommendations will assist in achieving the best jawbone outcomes in long-term and short-term assessments. These recommendations are as follows, a proper evaluation of each patient to determine their health condition. The nature of the infection, injury, and trauma that led to the extraction of the tooth should be well documented. The selection of technique pertaining to dental restoration, functionality, and aesthetic needs are of primary factors considered. A proper clinical follow-up and monitoring of recovery process is an essential part that contributes to valid results. Finally, patient awareness is essential as well. The study found out that although some of the bone grafting techniques have shown a high survival rate, significant alveolar bone quality and quantity, and success of the implants, several reports that the use of bone grafts and implants is a practice that will still dominate dental surgery and attract more clinical assessments.