The impact of bioactive agents PDGF & BMP on resolution of bony defects
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Bioactive agents are proteins that regulate cellular activities including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and matrix synthesis. Over the last decades there has been a focused effort to understand how these agents influence repair or regeneration of bony defects. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) has potent chemotactic and angiogenic properties. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a known factor for osteoblasts. This study evaluated the impact of recombinant human PDGF and BMP-2 on resolution of critical bony defects (2 mm) using mouse calvarial bone cultures. Calvaria from 5-7 day neonatal CD-1 mice were dissected and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium under sterile conditions. In the first experiment, two different delivery systems to deliver PDGF - freeze-dried bone allograft and beta- tricalcium phosphate were compared. The second experiment analyzed bone formation in response to BMP-2 in the presence or absence of freeze-dried bone allograft. The media was changed every 2 days and the spent media were analysed for calcium release. At the end of three weeks the calvaria were processed for histological observation, biochemical analyses and neutral red staining. The results show higher bone formation in response to BMP-2 than PDGF. The presence of allograft inhibits this response. We found B-TCP to be a better delivery agent for PDGF compared to freeze-dried bone allograft. The histologic assessment showed development of new bone through intramembranous pathway that replicates native bone development in presence of BMP-2. In conclusion our study proves that incorporation of two bioactive agents- PDGF and BMP-2 in an osteoconductive scaffold can induce repair and new bone formation in mouse calvarial bone cultures.
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