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dc.contributor.authorBlum, Kennethen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Amanda Lih-Chuanen_US
dc.contributor.authorBraverman, Eric R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorComings, David Een_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Thomas J. H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorArcuri, Vanessaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBlum, Seth H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDowns, Bernard W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWaite, Roger L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNotaro, Alisonen_US
dc.contributor.authorLubar, Joelen_US
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Lonnaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPrihoda, Thomas J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPalomo, Tomasen_US
dc.contributor.authorOscar-Berman, Marleneen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-01-11T21:07:27Z
dc.date.available2012-01-11T21:07:27Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.citationBlum, Kenneth, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen, Eric R Braverman, David E Comings, Thomas JH Chen, Vanessa Arcuri, Seth H Blum, Bernard W Downs, Roger L Waite, Alison Notaro, Joel Lubar, Lonna Williams, Thomas J Prihoda, Tomas Palomo, Marlene Oscar-Berman. "Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome" Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 4(5): 893-918. (2008)
dc.identifier.issn1178-2021
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/3178
dc.description.abstractMolecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a form of a gene (DRD2 A1 allele) that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specific neurotransmitters, have been associated with deficient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other "reward genes" are important common determinants of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS), which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identification in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUS Department of Health and Human Services; National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R01-AA07112, K05-AA00219); Medical Research Service of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; PATH Medical and Research Foundation; LifeGen Inc.en_US
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherDove Medical Pressen_US
dc.subjectAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)en_US
dc.subjectGenesen_US
dc.subjectReward dependenceen_US
dc.subjectReward deficiency syndromeen_US
dc.subjectTreatmenten_US
dc.subjectNeuropsychological deficitsen_US
dc.titleAttention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Reward Deficiency Syndromeen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.pmid19183781
dc.identifier.pmcid2626918


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