Recognition of nonmanual markers in American Sign Language (ASL) using non-parametric adaptive 2D-3D face tracking
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Citation (published version)Dimitris Metaxas, Bo Liu, Fei Yang, Peng Yang, Nicholas Michael, Carol Neidle. 2012. "Recognition of Nonmanual Markers in American Sign Language (ASL) Using Non-Parametric Adaptive 2D-3D Face Tracking." LREC 2012 - EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION. 8th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Istanbul, TURKEY, 2012-05-21 - 2012-05-27.
This paper addresses the problem of automatically recognizing linguistically significant nonmanual expressions in American Sign Language from video. We develop a fully automatic system that is able to track facial expressions and head movements, and detect and recognize facial events continuously from video. The main contributions of the proposed framework are the following: (1) We have built a stochastic and adaptive ensemble of face trackers to address factors resulting in lost face track; (2) We combine 2D and 3D deformable face models to warp input frames, thus correcting for any variation in facial appearance resulting from changes in 3D head pose; (3) We use a combination of geometric features and texture features extracted from a canonical frontal representation. The proposed new framework makes it possible to detect grammatically significant nonmanual expressions from continuous signing and to differentiate successfully among linguistically significant expressions that involve subtle differences in appearance. We present results that are based on the use of a dataset containing 330 sentences from videos that were collected and linguistically annotated at Boston University.