A multidimensional comparative analysis of South Korean school physical education classes
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The purpose of this dissertation was to observe, describe, compare, and analyze the differences between elementary, middle, and high school physical education classes in South Korea, based on teacher and student behavior, teacher-student interaction patterns, teacher and student involvement levels, and teaching effectiveness. The subjects of this study were comprised of 15 certified full-time physical education teachers at selected schools in Seoul. A videotaping team visited 11 selected schools around Seoul and videotaped regular physical education classes Three observational instruments were used to collect data. First, teacher and student behavior and teacher-student interaction patterns were coded using Chefers' Adaptation of Flanders' Interaction Analysis System. Next, teacher and student involvement levels were coded using Individual Reaction Gestalt III. Finally, teaching effectiveness was rated using the Teacher Perforn1ance Criteria Questioru1aire. This study addressed five research questions, and a null hypothesis was fonnulated for each question, with the exception of question number two. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistical procedures. All hypotheses were tested utilizing the Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test at the .05 and .1 level of significance. Additional comparisons using the Mann-Whitney Utest were made when significant differences between the three school levels were found using the Kruskal-Wallisone-way AN OVAtest. The Bonferroni adjusted level of significance (p<.05/3=.017 and p<.1/3=.033) was applied to the Mann-Whitney UTest. Furthermore, descriptive statistics were employed to determine frequencies/scores, means, and standard deviations for the data obtained using the three instruments. This study demonstrated that elementary school physical education classes exhibited more humanistic behaviors, such as acceptance of students' feelings and ideas, use of praise and encouragement, and use of various questioning techniques. Due to increased game-playing activities, elementary school classes displayed more student verbal and nonverbal analytical responses than middle and high school classes. In contrast, secondary school physical education classes were conducted in a highly hierarchical and militaristic atmosphere. In particular, corporal punishment was often used as a means to control classes. Middle school classes were conducted with a great deal of teacher input, including lecturing, criticism, and giving directions, and high school classes had a very structured atmosphere.
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