Field-driven quantum phase transitions in S=1/2 spin chains
Sandvik, Anders W.
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Citation (published version)Adam Iaizzi, Kedar Damle, Anders W Sandvik. 2017. "Field-driven quantum phase transitions in S=1/2 spin chains." Physical Review B, Volume 95, Issue 17, 174436. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.174436
We study the magnetization process of a one-dimensional extended Heisenberg model, the J−Q model, as a function of an external magnetic field h. In this model, J represents the traditional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange and Q is the strength of a competing four-spin interaction. Without external field, this system hosts a twofold-degenerate dimerized (valence-bond solid) state above a critical value qc≈0.85 where q≡Q/J. The dimer order is destroyed and replaced by a partially polarized translationally invariant state at a critical field value. We find magnetization jumps (metamagnetism) between the partially polarized and fully polarized state for q>qmin, where we have calculated qmin=29 exactly. For q>qmin, two magnons (flipped spins on a fully polarized background) attract and form a bound state. Quantum Monte Carlo studies confirm that the bound state corresponds to the first step of an instability leading to a finite magnetization jump for q>qmin. Our results show that neither geometric frustration nor spin anisotropy are necessary conditions for metamagnetism. Working in the two-magnon subspace, we also find evidence pointing to the existence of metamagnetism in the unfrustrated J1−J2 chain (J1>0,J2<0), but only if J2 is spin anisotropic. In addition to the studies at zero temperature, we also investigate quantum-critical scaling near the transition into the fully polarized state for q≤qmin at T>0. While the expected “zero-scale-factor” universality is clearly seen for q=0 and q≪qmin, for q closer to qmin we find that extremely low temperatures are required to observe the asymptotic behavior, due to the influence of the tricritical point at qmin. In the low-energy theory, one can expect the quartic nonlinearity to vanish at qmin and a marginal sixth-order term should govern the scaling, which leads to a crossover at a temperature T∗(q) between logarithmic tricritical scaling and zero-scale-factor universality, with T∗(q)→0 when q→qmin.
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