The Jacob2 Lectin of the Entamoeba Histolytica Cyst Wall Binds Chitin and Is Polymorphic
Ghosh, Sudip K.
Van Dellen, Katrina L.
Robbins, Phillips W.
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Citation (published version)Ghosh, Sudip K., Katrina L. Van Dellen, Anirban Chatterjee, Tuli Dey, Rashidul Haque, Phillips W. Robbins, John Samuelson. "The Jacob2 Lectin of the Entamoeba histolytica Cyst Wall Binds Chitin and Is Polymorphic" PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(7):e750. (2010)
BACKGROUND. The infectious and diagnostic form of Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), cause of amebic dysentery and liver abscess, is the quadranucleate cyst. The cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens (Ei), a model for Eh, is composed of chitin fibrils and three sets of chitin-binding lectins that cross-link chitin fibrils (multivalent Jacob lectins), self-aggregate (Jessie lectins), and remodel chitin (chitinase). The goal here was to determine how well the Ei model applies to Entamoeba cysts from humans. METHODS/RESULTS. An Eh Jacob lectin (EhJacob2) has three predicted chitin-binding domains surrounding a large, Ser-rich spacer. Recombinant EhJacob2 made in transfected Eh trophozoites binds to particulate chitin. Sequences of PCR products using primers flanking the highly polymorphic spacer of EhJacob2 may be used to distinguish Entamoeba isolates. Antibodies to the EhJacob2, EhJessie3, and chitinase each recognize cyst walls of clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While numerous sera from patients with amebic intestinal infections and liver abscess recognize recombinant EhJacob1 and EhJessie3 lectins, few of these sera recognize recombinant EhJacob2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE. The EhJacob2 lectin binds chitin and is polymorphic, and Jacob2, Jessie3, and chitinase are present in cyst walls of clinical isolates of Entamoeba. These results suggest there are substantial similarities between cysts of the human pathogen (Eh) and the in vitro model (Ei), even though there are quantitative and qualitative differences in their chitin-binding lectins. Author SummaryFor many years, we and others have used cysts of Entamoeba invadens (Ei), a reptilian parasite, to model the infectious and diagnostic cysts of the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica (Eh). The Ei cyst wall is composed of chitin fibrils, as well as Jacob and Jessie lectins that have unique chitin-binding domains. Our recent results suggest a "wattle and daub" model of the Ei cyst wall, where the wattle or sticks (chitin fibrils bound by multivalent Jacob lectins) is constructed prior to the addition of the mortar or daub (self-aggregating Jessie3 lectins). Here we "humanize" the Ei model of the cyst wall with four findings. First, a recombinant Eh Jacob2 lectin, which has three predicted chitin-binding domains surrounding a large spacer domain, binds chitin beads. Second, polymorphisms in the spacer domain of EhJacob2 discriminate clinical isolates of Entamoeba. Third, chitinase, Jacob2 lectin, and Jessie3 lectin are present in cyst walls of clinical isolates of Entamoeba. Finally, numerous sera from patients infected with Entamoeba recognize recombinant Eh Jacob1 and Jessie3 lectins.
RightsGhosh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.